A Guide to the Usage of HSK Vocabulary
author: Huang Nansong
publishing house : BEIJING LANGUAGE & CULTURE UNIVERSITY PRESS
number of edition: edition in 2000
number of pages: 722 pages
format: large 32 format
Guide to the Use of the Book
1. This book is specially prepared for the HSK participants, also as a reference book for learners of Chinese.
2. The entries are chosen on the basis of A Program of Graded Chinese Vocabulary (shortened as the Program thereinafter issued in 1992 by the HSK Office of the Leading Group for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign language Under the State Education Commission. However, two changes are made as follows:
A. Some pure morphemes or elements only used to form a few set phrases in modern Chinese are excluded, e.g. “文”、 “器”、 “液”、 “易”。
B. Non-word structures and idioms such as “越来越” 、“非……不可” 、“朝气蓬勃” 、“一帆风顺” are placed in the appendix at the end of the book.
3. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order. The numbers 1,2,3 and 4 on the right under the entry respectively stand for the grades A,B,C or D.
4. The phonetic transcriptions are written in accordance with the Program, but no blank space is given between the syllables within a detachable verb.
5. Parts of speech are indicated in English abbreviation with a pair of angled brackets, e.g. (n.), in basic agreement with the Program. Revisions are only made where the source version is apparently incorrect. Apart from that, changes are also made in the following:
A. Words that can be used as more than one part of speech are labeled in terms of their chosen meaning.
B. Nouns of time and locality are respectively marked as (n.t.) and (n.l.)
C. Words such as “洗澡”and“理发”whose part of speech is not indicated in the Program are classified into detachable verbs and labeled as (vd.). Further classifications of verbs are shown as (vt.) (transitive verbs), (vi.) (intransitive verbs) and (vl.) (link verbs). Some verbs that take or sometimes do not take an object are labeled as (v.)
D. Non-predicate adjectives are marked as (a. np.).
E. Pronouns are marked as (pron. p.) (personal pronoun), (pron. i.) (interrogative pronoun) and (pron. d.) (demonstrative pronoun) as the case may be.
F. Particles vary from (p. s.) (structural particle), (p. a.) (aspec-tural particle) to (p. m.) (modal particle) in their indications.
6. Each entry of the noun is followed by a pair of square brackets [ ] within which an appropriate measure word for it is provided. If such a measure word is more than one the most frequently used one is placed at the beginning of the list with a slant mark inserted between one and another.
7. Definitions of each word are generally given in English. As for part of the function words, Chinese and English explanations are equally provided with the latter in the brackets. The common meaning (or meanings) of a word is (or are) always given while its rare meaning (or meanings) is (or are) left out. The tilde “~” stands for the word in the examples showing its uses, and the vertical sign “|” represents a division between two examples.
8. Emotional or stylistic words are separately defined with “褒义” (commendatory) or “贬义” (derogatory), and “用于书面语” (used in writing) or “用于口语” (used in spoken Chinese).
9. A frame is formed here to show the collocation of verbs and adjectives. The possible objects following transitive or link verbs are grouped in one sense while the possible subjects preceding intransitive or detachable verbs and / or adjectives (functioning as predicates) are grouped in another sense.
10. Readers are advised to go over and remember Key to General Use of Modern Chinese Parts of Speech (shortened as the Key thereinafter) on which the explanations of each entry are based before they make reference to this book. Therefore no description is given to an entry unless it is different from what is stated in the Key. For example, a transitive verb can be used in eight ways, but “报答” cannot be followed by a directional word, a prepositional expression or “着” and the verbal measure words that it is possible to go with are limited to “次”, “回”and “下” only. Thus necessary explanations are added to its definition. As for the common uses they are so clear that no further comment is needed.
Special points to be noted in the text are:
A. An explanation is given to be common nouns which should be used with nouns of locality when appearing after “在”、 “从” or “到”. No comment is made for those nouns whose use with a noun of locality is optional.
B. Specify the verbal measure word, directional word or preposition when possibly used with a verb or an adjective.
C. Other uses are basically illustrated by sentences whereas a small number of them are made clear by explanation.
D. By “不能……” or “可……” in the explanation we mean “generally speaking”, rather than “without any exception”.
E. A word may have nothing or unusual in characteristic of its use if no reference is made in the Key or under the corresponding entry.
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