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A Guide to the Usage of HSK Vocabulary
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NameA Guide to the Usage of HSK Vocabulary
Author:Huang Nansong
Press:BEIJING LANGUAGE & CULTURE UNIVERSITY PRESS
ISBN :7561906374
Original:¥42/$6.69
Current:¥41.16/$6.55
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introduction of this product

A Guide to the Usage of HSK Vocabulary

HSK词语用法详解

作者: 黄南松

author: Huang Nansong

出版社北京语言文化大学出版社

publishing house : BEIJING LANGUAGE & CULTURE UNIVERSITY PRESS

版次2000年出版

number of edition: edition in 2000

页数722

number of pages: 722 pages

开本32

format: large 32 format

ISBN:7561906374

 

 

适用对象HSK考生学习汉语的外国人对外汉语教师

 

本词典详细说明《汉语水平词汇与汉字等级大纲》(国家对外汉语教学领导小组办公室汉语水平考试部编制)中所选的四个级别8000余词语的用法,具体解说各个词语的用法,列举了大量例句,释义有中英文对照。

 

 

Guide to the Use of the Book

1. This book is specially prepared for the HSK participants, also as a reference book for learners of Chinese.

2. The entries are chosen on the basis of A Program of Graded Chinese Vocabulary (shortened as the Program thereinafter issued in 1992 by the HSK Office of the Leading Group for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign language Under the State Education Commission. However, two changes are made as follows:

A.  Some pure morphemes or elements only used to form a few set phrases in modern Chinese are excluded, e.g. “

B.  Non-word structures and idioms such as “越来越……不可朝气蓬勃一帆风顺” are placed in the appendix at the end of the book.

3. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order. The numbers 1,2,3 and 4 on the right under the entry respectively stand for the grades A,B,C or D.

4. The phonetic transcriptions are written in accordance with the Program, but no blank space is given between the syllables within a detachable verb.

5. Parts of speech are indicated in English abbreviation with a pair of angled brackets, e.g. (n.), in basic agreement with the Program. Revisions are only made where the source version is apparently incorrect. Apart from that, changes are also made in the following:

A.  Words that can be used as more than one part of speech are labeled in terms of their chosen meaning.

B.   Nouns of time and locality are respectively marked as (n.t.) and (n.l.)

C. Words such as “洗澡”and“理发”whose part of speech is not indicated in the Program are classified into detachable verbs and labeled as (vd.). Further classifications of verbs are shown as (vt.) (transitive verbs), (vi.) (intransitive verbs) and (vl.) (link verbs). Some verbs that take or sometimes do not take an object are labeled as (v.)

D. Non-predicate adjectives are marked as (a. np.).

E.  Pronouns are marked as (pron. p.) (personal pronoun), (pron. i.) (interrogative pronoun) and (pron. d.) (demonstrative pronoun) as the case may be.

F.  Particles vary from (p. s.) (structural particle), (p. a.) (aspec-tural particle) to (p. m.) (modal particle) in their indications.

6. Each entry of the noun is followed by a pair of square brackets [ ] within which an appropriate measure word for it is provided. If such a measure word is more than one the most frequently used one is placed at the beginning of the list with a slant mark inserted between one and another.

7. Definitions of each word are generally given in English. As for part of the function words, Chinese and English explanations are equally provided with the latter in the brackets. The common meaning (or meanings) of a word is (or are) always given while its rare meaning (or meanings) is (or are) left out. The tilde “~” stands for the word in the examples showing its uses, and the vertical sign “|” represents a division between two examples.

8. Emotional or stylistic words are separately defined with “褒义” (commendatory) or “贬义” (derogatory), and “用于书面语” (used in writing) or “用于口语” (used in spoken Chinese).

9. A frame is formed here to show the collocation of verbs and adjectives. The possible objects following transitive or link verbs are grouped in one sense while the possible subjects preceding intransitive or detachable verbs and / or adjectives (functioning as predicates) are grouped in another sense.

10. Readers are advised to go over and remember Key to General Use of Modern Chinese Parts of Speech (shortened as the Key thereinafter) on which the explanations of each entry are based before they make reference to this book. Therefore no description is given to an entry unless it is different from what is stated in the Key. For example, a transitive verb can be used in eight ways, but “报答” cannot be followed by a directional word, a prepositional expression or “” and the verbal measure words that it is possible to go with are limited to “”, “”and “” only. Thus necessary explanations are added to its definition. As for the common uses they are so clear that no further comment is needed.

Special points to be noted in the text are:

A.  An explanation is given to be common nouns which should be used with nouns of locality when appearing after “” or “”. No comment is made for those nouns whose use with a noun of locality is optional.

B.  Specify the verbal measure word, directional word or preposition when possibly used with a verb or an adjective.

C. Other uses are basically illustrated by sentences whereas a small number of them are made clear by explanation.

D. By “不能……” or “……” in the explanation we mean “generally speaking”, rather than “without any exception”.

E.  A word may have nothing or unusual in characteristic of its use if no reference is made in the Key or under the corresponding entry.

 

 

本书使用说明

一、本书以准备参加汉语水平考试(HSK)的读者为对象,也可供学习汉语者作为工具书使用。

二、本书收词依据《汉语水平词汇等级大纲》(国家对外汉语教学领导小组办公室汉语水平考试部1992年颁布。以下简称《大纲》),但有以下两点变动:

1.   在现代汉语中,只能作为单纯的构词成分或只能出现在少数固定短语中的条目未收。例如:文、器、液、易。

2.    非词的结构和成语作为附录放在书的最后。例如:越来越、非……不可、朝气蓬勃、一帆风顺。

三、词条按音序排列。词条右下角的1234、分别代表它所处的甲、乙、丙、丁四个级别。

四、注音依据《大纲》,但离合动词中间不空格。

五、词性标注基本依据《大纲》,用英文缩写,外加圆括号标明,如(n.)。但极少数《大纲》明显标注不妥的,本书有所改动。此外,还有以下几点不同:

1.   兼类词按义项标明词性。

2.    时间名词和方位名词分别标为(n.t.)、(n.l.

3.    洗澡、理发这类成分,《大纲》未标词性,但本书处理为离合动词,并以(vd.)注明。另外,动词还分为及物动词、不及物动词和关系动词,分别标示为(vt.)(vi.)(vl.)。有的既可带宾语也可不带宾语则标注为(v.

4.    形容词中的非谓形容词标为(a.np.

5.    代词分别标为(pron.p.)(pron.i.)(pron.d.

6.    助词分别标为(p.s.)、(p.a.)、(p.m.)。

六、名词词条后用方括号[ ]标示与它配合的量词。如量词不止一个,中间用斜线/隔开,常用的在前。

七、释义一般用英文。部分虚词释义采用汉英对照形式,其中英文放在()中。每一词条所列义项不求全,以常用为标准,不常用的不列。释义后描写用法的例句中遇本条目,用~代替。不止一例的,例与例之间用坚线|隔开。

八、词条有感情色彩和语体色彩时,分别用褒义/贬义用于书面语/用于口语注明。

九、动词、形容词给出语义搭配框架。其中及物动词和关系动词给出后面所能出现的宾语的语义类;不及物动词、离合动词和一般形容词作谓语时给出前面所能出现的主语的语义类。

十、使用本书前,务请先仔细阅读并记住正文前面的《现代汉语各类词的主要用法》(以下简称《主要用法》)的有关内容,本书正文对各词条用法的描述都以此为根据。如某词条的用法与《主要用法》所述的同类词用法相同时,则不加描述;只有当词条的用法与《主要用法》所述内容不同时,才出现文字描述。如及物动词本应具有《主要用法》所述的8个特点,但及物动词报答后面一般不能加趋向词介词短语和,可加的动量词也只有次、回、下三个,这有文字描述;其余几点与《主要用法》所述内容相同,所以不加描述。

正文词条的用法描写部分,需特别说明的项目是:

1.一般名词用在在、从、到后,必需加方位词的,要特意说明;可加或不需加的省略不说。

2.动词、形容词可与动量词、趋向词、介词短语搭配时,应具体说明动量词、趋向词、介词是哪些。

3.其他用法特点主要用例句体现,少数用文字说明。

4.文字描述部分所谓不能…………,都是就一般情况而言;并不意味着没有特殊或例外。

5.《说明》没有提到的某种用法特点,如词条下也未描述,则表示该词条不具有这种特点,或者是虽有但不够常用。

 

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