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New Approaches to Learning Chinese: Intensive Spoken Chinese (Chinese-English)+CD
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NameNew Approaches to Learning Chinese: Intensive Spoken Chinese (Chinese-English)+CD
Author:Zhang Pengpeng
Press:SINOLINGUA BEIJING
ISBN :9787800525773
Original:¥45/$7.17
Current:¥44.1/$7.02
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New Approaches to Learning Chinese: Intensive Spoken Chinese (Chinese-English)+CD

新编基础汉语(口语篇)口语速成(汉英对照)附光盘

作者: 张朋朋

author: Zhang Pengpeng

出版社:北京华语教学出版社

publishing house: SINOLINGUA BEIJING

版次:2001年第一版(汉英)

number of editions: first edition in 2001 (Chinese-English)

印次:2007年第六次印刷

number of print: sixth print in 2007

页数:166

number of pages: 166 pages

装订:平装

binding: paperbound

开本:16

format: 16 format

13 ISBN9787800525773

 

 

本书使用简体汉字

This book uses simplified Chinese character

课本有英文注释

with English annotation in the text

生词表有拼音注释

with Pin Yin annotation in the new words list

有配套磁带

with additional cassettes

 

 

Specially designed with brand-new approaches for foreign students beginning to learn Chinese. Includes 40 topics covering virtually almost all aspects of daily communication, introducing more than 1000 commonly used words, and 80 essential aspects of Chinese grammar. Beginning with pinyin only, instead of dealing with both pronunciation and character recognition, students will find Spoken Chinese course easy to master, and will be able to communicate in Chinese in no time. French versions are available. Paperback

 

 

《新编基础汉语》是一套按“语”和“文”分开教学的新思路编写的供外国人使用的系列基础汉语教材。全套教材按照“口语教学——汉字书写教学——汉字认读教学”的教学顺序分为三种课本,本书是其中的口语教材。本书的特点是:课全部使用汉语拼音形式,便于口语学习。课文以话题入手,按照语言知识由浅入深展开教学,并尽可能充分提供相关话题的词汇;采用字母公式表示句型结构,提供丰富的词语替换语言练习。插图图片具有较强的教学提示性。本书共分40课,涉及围绕有关中国社会生活交际的各个方面,讲解汉语最基本的语法知识。本书课文配有标准普通话录音磁带。

 

 

 

This set of courses is specially designed with brand-new approaches for foreign students beginning integrated into a whole, there are three courses in this set: Intensive Spoken Chinese, THE Most Common Chinese Radicals, and Rapid Literacy in Chinese.

Beginning with pinyin only, instead of dealing with both pronunciation and character recognition, students will find the Spoken Chinese course easy to master, and will be able to communicate in Chinese in no time.

The concentrated training in character learning will enable the student to enter into the reading stage in an unprecedentedly short time and taste the satisfaction and enjoyment of fluent comprehension.

In the Radicals book, the students will be attracted by the rich content of culture and art embodied in Chinese characters, which, instead of being the “Stumbling blocks” they have often been considered, become “magnets” drawing them step by step to the innermost charm of the Chinese language.

 

 

这是一套按照新的思路编写的供外国人使用的基础汉语教材。这套教材由既相对独立而又有联系的三个课本组成。

使用《口语速成》,外国学生会觉得口语很容易学,他们将会很快地掌握与中国人进行口头交际的能力。

使用《集中识字》,外国学生会在短期内快速地提高书面阅读能力。

使用《常用汉字部首》,外国学生将不再视汉字为“绊脚石”,他们将会被汉字的文化内涵和艺术魅力所深深吸引。

 

 

 

Introduction

The Chinese language has for too long been perceived as being beyond the grasp of the foreign learner. This misconception has been caused, unfortunately, for the most part by an improper teaching approach.

For several decades the spoken and written forms of Chinese have been taught simultaneously to beginners. There is nothing wrong with this approach in teaching Western languages like French or English that employ a phonetic system or alphabet as an aid to learning pronunciation, but it is certainly not the best method for teaching the Chinese spoken language and Chinese characters. The reasons for this are threefold:

1. Chinese characters cannot be read phonetically. Chinese characters developed from pictographs into ideographs. This means that there is no direct relationship between the form and structure of Chinese characters and their pronunciation. So the hotchpotch teaching of both the spoken language and Chinese characters at the beginning stage will not help foreign learners master pronunciation, and the characters will, is anything, only be a stumbling block to their acquisition of oral fluency.

2. Each Chinese character is made up of components that follow a specific stroke order and rules of formation. So it is logical that the simple component be taught first, progressing to the more complicated component and whole characters. But in the approach of teaching speaking and writing simultaneously, whatever is learnt in the spoken language will be followed by a corresponding written character. Obviously, in this approach the characters are not chosen systematically according to their structural compositions, and so the rules that govern the writing of Chinese characters are not reflected, making the teaching and learning of characters only more chaotic and difficult.

3. Chinese characters should form the basis of courses in reading texts. Single syllable characters can be combined to make various disyllabic or multi-syllabic words. There are unlimited combinations that can be made by adding characters to change or expand meanings. If you know how to pronounce some characters, it follows that you will be able to read the word they form. Knowing the meaning of certain characters will help you understand the meaning of the word they make. As you learn more characters, your ability to recognize more words increases. Learning words thus becomes easier. Since character recognition determines word recognition, the main objective in teaching Chinese characters should be to raise the learner’s level of character recognition.

However, this is not possible with the “writing following speaking” approach. When teaching colloquial Chinese we naturally use words instead of characters as the basis of teaching because the word is the smallest unit in making a sentence. When teaching the word 中国 for example, we will invariable explain its meaning with the English “China”, but the two characters that make up the word “middle” and “kingdom” are not explained. Traditional Chinese language teaching has always used “character recognition” as the criterion in judging a learner’s ability to read texts. The “writing following speaking” approach simply disregards the necessity of teaching the characters on their own and does not give the characters the place they deserve, thus greatly reducing the efficiency of teaching Chinese reading.

Our new approach may be summarized as follows:

In the initial stages of learning, “spoken Chinese” and “character recognition and writing” should be taught separately.

Teaching materials for oral class use mainly a system of romanization called Hanyu pinyin. The students are not required to deal with the characters. There are obvious reasons for this. Learning to speak Chinese becomes a lot easier using a phonetic system of romanization.

While teaching spoken Chinese we start to introduce systematically the form of Chinese characters: the strokes, these “stubling blocks” become much more friendly in this way, and the students are given a key to the secret of Chinese characters which will help them greatly in their later reading stage.

Then proceed to the reading stage by learning to read characters. Only when the learner is able to speak and has learned the form and structure of characters can we begin to teach him how to read. Texts should be specially designed, focusing on character recognition and word formations, with the aim of quickly enlarging vocabulary and acquiring reading ability.

In the reading stage character learning should be combined with continuous spoken language training and reading aptitude training. The texts should be put in the form of dialogues and narrative prose pieces written with the characters learned in each lesson, so they are very short, and easy to read and remember. The exercises should include comprehensive forms of listening, speaking, reading and writing that are closely linked and complementary to each other.

What is discussed above can be illustrated as below:

Initial stage: Oral Course (Learn to use pinyin); Writing Course (Learn the basic structural components of characters)

Second stage: Comprehensive course include Character learning (intensive training); Oral training (application of characters); Reading (Prose, etc.); Writing (characters and sentences)

Based on the above design and consideration, New Approaches to Learning Chinese has been devised, which includes three textbooks:

Intensive Spoken Chinese (oral course)

Includes 40 conversational lessons, about 1,000 commonly used words and numerous grammatical notes.

The Most Common Chinese Radicals (writing course)

Contains about 100 Chinese radicals and the basic structure of Chinese characters.

Rapid Literacy in Chinese (comprehensive course)

Uses 750 commonly used Chinese characters and 1300 words formed from them to make 25 short sentences, 25 conversational dialogues and four narrative prose pieces.

Beginners who have completed Intensive Spoken Chinese and The Most Common Chinese Radicals can proceed to Rapid Literacy in Chinese. So by going step by step they will feel that learning Chinese is not difficult at all. Furthermore, there is much that can be learned about Chinese culture from Chinese characters, besides their alluring charm and fascination.

 

 

对于外国人来说,学习和掌握汉语和汉字并不是一件非常困难的事情。过去,人们之所以不这样认为,主要是和教授这种语言和文字的方法不当有关。

    过去,教授汉语和汉字一般是采用“语文一体”的方法,即“口语”和“文字”的教学同步进行。这种方法和教授英、法语等使用拼音文字的语言是一样的。本人认为:“语文一体”的方法对于教授拼音文字的语言是合理和有效的,但用于教授汉语、汉字是不合适的,这是使外国人对学习汉语产生畏难情绪的主要原因。

    一、汉字不是拼音文字。汉字是一种从象形文字发展而来的表意文字。汉字的形体不表示汉语的语音。因此,如果采用“语文一体”的方法,口语的内容用汉字来书写,将不利于学习者学习口语的发音,使汉字成为了他们学习口语的“绊脚石”。

    二、汉字的字形是一个以一定数量的构件按照一定的规则进行组合的系统。因此,教学上,应先教这一定数量的构件及组合规则,然后再教由这些构件所组合的汉字。可是,“语文一体”的教法必然形成“文从语”的教学体系。也就是说,学什么话,教什么字。这种教法,汉字出现的顺序杂乱无章,体现不出汉字字形教学的系统性和规律性,从而大大增加了汉字教学的难度。

    三、汉字具有构词性,有限的汉字构成了无限的词。“词”是由“字”构成的,知道了字音可以读出词音,知道了字义便于理解词义,“字”学的越多,会念的“词”就越多,学习“词”就越容易。也就是说,“识字量”决定了“识词量”。因此,汉语书面阅读教学应该以汉字作为教学的基本单位,应该把提高学习者的“识字量”作为教学的主要目标。“文从语”的做法恰恰是不可能做到这一点。因为,教材的编写从口语教学的要求和原则来考虑,自然要以“词”作为教学的基本单位。由于口语中能独立运用的最小的造句单位是“词”,所以在教“中国”一词时,必然只介绍“China”这一词义,而不会介绍“中”和“国”两个字的字义。中国语文教学历来是以“识字量”作为衡量一个人书面阅读能力强弱的标准,而“语文一体”这种教法等于是取消了汉字教学,从而大大影响了汉语书面阅读教学的效率。

    综上所述,如果根据汉语和汉字的特点来对外国人进行基础汉语教学的话,在总体设计

上就不应采用“语文一体”的模式,我认为应该遵循以下几个原则来设计:

 

●教学初期把“语”和“文”分开。

    实现的方式是:口语教学主要借助汉语拼音来进行,对汉字不做要求。这样,使汉字不成其为“绊脚石”,使口语教学将变得极为容易。汉字教学另编教材,先进行汉字的字形教学,教材的内容从基本笔画人手,以部首为纲,以构件组合为核心。汉字字形教学和口语教学并行,这样,既有利于口语教学,又使汉字的字形教学具有了系统性和规律性。系统而有规律地进行汉字教学不仅可以大大降低学习的难度,而且从一开始就给了学习者一把开启神秘汉字大门的钥匙,这对他们是受益无穷的。

 

●先进行口语教学和汉字字形教学,后进行识字阅读教学。

    也就是说,对汉字的认读教学不要在初期阶段进行,而应安排在进行了一段口语和在结束了汉字字形教学之后。因为,具有了口语能力和书写汉字的技能对识字教学有促进作用,从而可以使学习者较为轻松地跨越“识字”这第二道“门槛”。

 

    ●阅读教学应以识字教学打头,采用独特的识字教学法。

“识字教学”和“写字教学”一样也是汉语教学中所独有的教学环节,应该根据汉字的特点编写适合外国人使用的识字课本。识字课本应以“字”作为教学的基本单位,以“以字组词”为核心,以快速提高学生的识字量和阅读能力为教学目标。

 

    ●识字教学要和口语教学、阅读教学相结合。

具体做法是用所识的字和词编写口语对话体课文和叙述体散文作为这一阶段教材的内容。这一阶段的教学从程序上是一环扣一环的,从练习方式上是一种有听、有说、有读、有写的综合式教学。

 

    上述总体设计图示:

第一阶段:口语课(学习并使用汉语拼音);写字课(学习汉字的基本构件)

第二阶段:综合课包括识字教学(集中识字);口语教学(使用汉字);阅读教学(散文小品);写字教学(书写字句)

 

    根据上述原则,本人编写了一套基础汉语教程。本教程包括三本教材:

    一是口语篇,书名是《口语速成》。此书用于口语课。

    二是写字篇,书名是《常用汉字部首》。此书用于写字课。

三是识字篇,书名是《集中识字》。此书用于综合课。

 

    使用这套教材,初学者先学习《口语速成》和《常用汉字部首》,学完之后再学习《识字课本》,就像吃西餐一样,一道菜一道菜来,循序渐进。这样,学习者不仅不会觉得汉语难学,而且还会被汉字的文化内涵和艺术魅力所深深吸引。

 

 

To the User

This spoken Chinese course for beginners has the following special features:

1. The texts, sentence patterns and vocabulary are all given in pinyin spelling. This is to make it easier for students to learn spoken Chinese using a romanized apelling which is easy to master. Although the corresponding Chinese characters are also provided under the pinyin version of the words, the student is not required to master them at this stage.

2. Each text centers on a topic useful for daily communication. This functional approach is reinforced with carefully tailored grammatical explanations which proceed systematically from the simple to the more difficult and complex language points.

3. Incorporated in the exercises are time-honored oral training methods: sentence pattern and substitution drills. The patterns are laid out in a format which makes them clear and easy to remember. This is a unique feature of this book.

4. A large amount of vocabulary items is provided side by side with the words in the substitution drills to meet the communication needs of different situations. For example, most types of fruit are listed in the lesson about how to buy fruit. Thus, this textbook can also serve as a small handy dictionary in which words are categorized by subject.

5. There are illustrations in each lesson closely related to the topics under discussion to facilitate both teaching and learning.

In sum, included in this book are 40 topics, covering virtually almost all aspects of daily communication, together with more than 1,000 commonly used words, and 80 essential aspects of Chinese grammar. All the texts are recorded into aural cassettes.

 

 

编写体例

    作为汉语初级口语教材,本书有以下几个特点:

    一、语料(课文、句型和词汇)都用汉语拼音来书写,而且汉语拼音字体大,突出醒目。其目的是:让学习者在学习汉语的初期借助拼音来学习口语。教材中虽在拼音下面附有汉字,但并不要求学生掌握。

    二、课文从内容上来讲,一课围绕一个话题来展开,突出了语言的交际功能;在语法点的安排上又照顾到语法教学由浅入深,由简单到复杂的系统性。本书力图把语言的功能教学和语法教学有机地结合起来。

    三、在练习上,主要是采用句型加词语替换的方式。因为这是口语教学中多年行之有效的操练方法。为了使句型结构清晰醒目,本书采用了字母公式表示法,这也可以说是本书的一个特色。

    四、在词汇方面,本书把某一个话题所需要的词汇尽可能充分地给出来,以满足学习者交际的需要。如:购买水果的话题,在句型替换部分把大部分的水果名称都给了出来。这样,本书又很像是一本十分有用的,容易查找的分类词汇小词典。

    五、在插图设计上,本书尽可能给学习者提供一些与课文和词汇有关的真实而有用的图片,使插图达到为教学,为学习者服务的目的。

    全书共分40个话题,涉及到日常生活交际的各个方面。词语1000多个,基本上是常用词。语法注释80多条,包括了汉语中最基本的语法点。本书正课文配有标准普通话录音磁带。

 

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