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Categorise: Supplementary Teaching/Studying Materials for Foreigners >> Characters >> 
New Approaches to Learning Chinese: The Most Common Chinese Radicals (Chinese-English)
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NameNew Approaches to Learning Chinese: The Most Common Chinese Radicals (Chinese-English)
Author:Zhang Pengpeng
Press:SINOLINGUA BEIJING
ISBN :7800525767
Original:¥27/$4.30
Current:¥26.46/$4.21
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New Approaches to Learning Chinese: The Most Common Chinese Radicals (Chinese-English)

新编基础汉语(写字篇)常用汉字部首(汉英对照)

作者: 张朋朋

author: Zhang Pengpeng

出版社:北京华语教学出版社

publishing house: SINOLINGUA BEIJING

版次:2001年第一版

number of editions: first edition in 2001

印次:2006年第五次印刷(汉英)

number of print: fifth print in 2006 (Chinese-English)

页数:147

number of pages: 147 pages

开本:16

format: 16 format

ISBN7800525767/H·1022(外)

 

 

Specially designed with brand-new approaches for foreign students beginning to learn Chinese. 108 most commonly used radicals are introduced in this book, sequenced from the simple to the more complicated according to their number of strokes. Each radical is explained by its name, meaning, function, origin, way to write and the number of strokes, and followed by several compound characters sharing the same radical. The students will be attracted by the culture and art richly embodied in Chinese characters, which, instead of being the “stumbling blocks” as they have often been considered before, will become “magnets” drawing them step by step to the innermost charm of the Chinese language. French versions are available. Paperback

 

 

《新编基础汉语》是一套按“语”和“文”分开教学的新思路编写的供外国人使用的系列基础汉语教材。全套教材按照“口语教学——汉字书写教学——汉字认读教学”的教学顺序分为三种课本,本书是其中的汉字书写教材。本书的特点是:从汉字笔画入手,讲授汉字的8种基本笔画,介绍相关笔画变形写法及笔顺规则;详细讲解汉字的结构特点,介绍108个最常用的部首,并介绍有关部首所构成的部分合体字。通过学习汉字结构规则,为认识汉字、学习汉字并掌握汉字书写打下基础。

 

 

This set of courses is specially designed with brand-new approaches for foreign students beginning integrated into a whole, there are three courses in this set: Intensive Spoken Chinese, THE Most Common Chinese Radicals, and Rapid Literacy in Chinese.

Beginning with pinyin only, instead of dealing with both pronunciation and character recognition, students will find the Spoken Chinese course easy to master, and will be able to communicate in Chinese in no time.

The concentrated training in character learning will enable the student to enter into the reading stage in an unprecedentedly short time and taste the satisfaction and enjoyment of fluent comprehension.

In the Radicals book, the students will be attracted by the rich content of culture and art embodied in Chinese characters, which, instead of being the “Stumbling blocks” they have often been considered, become “magnets” drawing them step by step to the innermost charm of the Chinese language.

 

 

这是一套按照新的思路编写的供外国人使用的基础汉语教材。这套教材由既相对独立而又有联系的三个课本组成。

使用《口语速成》,外国学生会觉得汉语口语很容易学,他们将会很快掌握与中国人进行口头交际的能力。

使用《集中识字》,外国学生将会在短期内快速提高书面阅读能力。

使用《常用汉字部首》,外国学生将不再视汉字为“绊脚石”,他们将会被汉字的文化内涵和艺术魅力所深深吸引。

 

 

 

Introduction

The Chinese language has for too long been perceived as being beyond the grasp of the foreign learner. This misconception has been caused, unfortunately, for the most part by an improper teaching approach.

For several decades the spoken and written forms of Chinese have been taught simultaneously to beginners. There is nothing wrong with this approach in teaching Western languages like French or English that employ a phonetic system or alphabet as an aid to learning pronunciation, but it is certainly not the best method for teaching the Chinese spoken language and Chinese characters. The reasons for this are threefold:

1. Chinese characters cannot be read phonetically. Chinese characters developed from pictographs into ideographs. This means that there is no direct relationship between the form and structure of Chinese characters and their pronunciation. So the hotchpotch teaching of both the spoken language and Chinese characters at the beginning stage will not help foreign learners master pronunciation, and the characters will, is anything, only be a stumbling block to their acquisition of oral fluency.

2. Each Chinese character is made up of components that follow a specific stroke order and rules of formation. So it is logical that the simple component be taught first, progressing to the more complicated component and whole characters. But in the approach of teaching speaking and writing simultaneously, whatever is learnt in the spoken language will be followed by a corresponding written character. Obviously, in this approach the characters are not chosen systematically according to their structural compositions, and so the rules that govern the writing of Chinese characters are not reflected, making the teaching and learning of characters only more chaotic and difficult.

3. Chinese characters should form the basis of courses in reading texts. Single syllable characters can be combined to make various disyllabic or multi-syllabic words. There are unlimited combinations that can be made by adding characters to change or expand meanings. If you know how to pronounce some characters, it follows that you will be able to read the word they form. Knowing the meaning of certain characters will help you understand the meaning of the word they make. As you learn more characters, your ability to recognize more words increases. Learning words thus becomes easier. Since character recognition determines word recognition, the main objective in teaching Chinese characters should be to raise the learner’s level of character recognition.

However, this is not possible with the “writing following speaking” approach. When teaching colloquial Chinese we naturally use words instead of characters as the basis of teaching because the word is the smallest unit in making a sentence. When teaching the word 中国 for example, we will invariable explain its meaning with the English “China”, but the two characters that make up the word “middle” and “kingdom” are not explained. Traditional Chinese language teaching has always used “character recognition” as the criterion in judging a learner’s ability to read texts. The “writing following speaking” approach simply disregards the necessity of teaching the characters on their own and does not give the characters the place they deserve, thus greatly reducing the efficiency of teaching Chinese reading.

Our new approach may be summarized as follows:

In the initial stages of learning, “spoken Chinese” and “character recognition and writing” should be taught separately.

Teaching materials for oral class use mainly a system of romanization called Hanyu pinyin. The students are not required to deal with the characters. There are obvious reasons for this. Learning to speak Chinese becomes a lot easier using a phonetic system of romanization.

While teaching spoken Chinese we start to introduce systematically the form of Chinese characters: the strokes, these “stubling blocks” become much more friendly in this way, and the students are given a key to the secret of Chinese characters which will help them greatly in their later reading stage.

Then proceed to the reading stage by learning to read characters. Only when the learner is able to speak and has learned the form and structure of characters can we begin to teach him how to read. Texts should be specially designed, focusing on character recognition and word formations, with the aim of quickly enlarging vocabulary and acquiring reading ability.

In the reading stage character learning should be combined with continuous spoken language training and reading aptitude training. The texts should be put in the form of dialogues and narrative prose pieces written with the characters learned in each lesson, so they are very short, and easy to read and remember. The exercises should include comprehensive forms of listening, speaking, reading and writing that are closely linked and complementary to each other.

What is discussed above can be illustrated as below:

Initial stage: Oral Course (Learn to use pinyin); Writing Course (Learn the basic structural components of characters)

Second stage: Comprehensive course include Character learning (intensive training); Oral training (application of characters); Reading (Prose, etc.); Writing (characters and sentences)

Based on the above design and consideration, New Approaches to Learning Chinese has been devised, which includes three textbooks:

Intensive Spoken Chinese (oral course)

Includes 40 conversational lessons, about 1,000 commonly used words and numerous grammatical notes.

The Most Common Chinese Radicals (writing course)

Contains about 100 Chinese radicals and the basic structure of Chinese characters.

Rapid Literacy in Chinese (comprehensive course)

Uses 750 commonly used Chinese characters and 1300 words formed from them to make 25 short sentences, 25 conversational dialogues and four narrative prose pieces.

Beginners who have completed Intensive Spoken Chinese and The Most Common Chinese Radicals can proceed to Rapid Literacy in Chinese. So by going step by step they will feel that learning Chinese is not difficult at all. Furthermore, there is much that can be learned about Chinese culture from Chinese characters, besides their alluring charm and fascination.

 

 

对于外国人来说,学习和掌握汉语和汉字并不是一件非常困难的事情。过去,人们之所以不这样认为,主要是和教授这种语言和文字的方法不当有关。

    过去,教授汉语和汉字一般是采用“语文一体”的方法,即“口语”和“文字”的教学同步进行。这种方法和教授英、法语等使用拼音文字的语言是一样的。本人认为:“语文一体”的方法对于教授拼音文字的语言是合理和有效的,但用于教授汉语、汉字是不合适的,这是使外国人对学习汉语产生畏难情绪的主要原因。

    一、汉字不是拼音文字。汉字是一种从象形文字发展而来的表意文字。汉字的形体不表示汉语的语音。因此,如果采用“语文一体”的方法,口语的内容用汉字来书写,将不利于学习者学习口语的发音,使汉字成为了他们学习口语的“绊脚石”。

    二、汉字的字形是一个以一定数量的构件按照一定的规则进行组合的系统。因此,教学上,应先教这一定数量的构件及组合规则,然后再教由这些构件所组合的汉字。可是,“语文一体”的教法必然形成“文从语”的教学体系。也就是说,学什么话,教什么字。这种教法,汉字出现的顺序杂乱无章,体现不出汉字字形教学的系统性和规律性,从而大大增加了汉字教学的难度。

    三、汉字具有构词性,有限的汉字构成了无限的词。“词”是由“字”构成的,知道了字音可以读出词音,知道了字义便于理解词义,“字”学的越多,会念的“词”就越多,学习“词”就越容易。也就是说,“识字量”决定了“识词量”。因此,汉语书面阅读教学应该以汉字作为教学的基本单位,应该把提高学习者的“识字量”作为教学的主要目标。“文从语”的做法恰恰是不可能做到这一点。因为,教材的编写从口语教学的要求和原则来考虑,自然要以“词”作为教学的基本单位。由于口语中能独立运用的最小的造句单位是“词”,所以在教“中国”一词时,必然只介绍“China”这一词义,而不会介绍“中”和“国”两个字的字义。中国语文教学历来是以“识字量”作为衡量一个人书面阅读能力强弱的标准,而“语文一体”这种教法等于是取消了汉字教学,从而大大影响了汉语书面阅读教学的效率。

    综上所述,如果根据汉语和汉字的特点来对外国人进行基础汉语教学的话,在总体设计

上就不应采用“语文一体”的模式,我认为应该遵循以下几个原则来设计:

 

●教学初期把“语”和“文”分开。

    实现的方式是:口语教学主要借助汉语拼音来进行,对汉字不做要求。这样,使汉字不成其为“绊脚石”,使口语教学将变得极为容易。汉字教学另编教材,先进行汉字的字形教学,教材的内容从基本笔画人手,以部首为纲,以构件组合为核心。汉字字形教学和口语教学并行,这样,既有利于口语教学,又使汉字的字形教学具有了系统性和规律性。系统而有规律地进行汉字教学不仅可以大大降低学习的难度,而且从一开始就给了学习者一把开启神秘汉字大门的钥匙,这对他们是受益无穷的。

 

●先进行口语教学和汉字字形教学,后进行识字阅读教学。

    也就是说,对汉字的认读教学不要在初期阶段进行,而应安排在进行了一段口语和在结束了汉字字形教学之后。因为,具有了口语能力和书写汉字的技能对识字教学有促进作用,从而可以使学习者较为轻松地跨越“识字”这第二道“门槛”。

 

    ●阅读教学应以识字教学打头,采用独特的识字教学法。

“识字教学”和“写字教学”一样也是汉语教学中所独有的教学环节,应该根据汉字的特点编写适合外国人使用的识字课本。识字课本应以“字”作为教学的基本单位,以“以字组词”为核心,以快速提高学生的识字量和阅读能力为教学目标。

 

    ●识字教学要和口语教学、阅读教学相结合。

具体做法是用所识的字和词编写口语对话体课文和叙述体散文作为这一阶段教材的内容。这一阶段的教学从程序上是一环扣一环的,从练习方式上是一种有听、有说、有读、有写的综合式教学。

 

    上述总体设计图示:

第一阶段:口语课(学习并使用汉语拼音);写字课(学习汉字的基本构件)

第二阶段:综合课包括识字教学(集中识字);口语教学(使用汉字);阅读教学(散文小品);写字教学(书写字句)

 

    根据上述原则,本人编写了一套基础汉语教程。本教程包括三本教材:

    一是口语篇,书名是《口语速成》。此书用于口语课。

    二是写字篇,书名是《常用汉字部首》。此书用于写字课。

三是识字篇,书名是《集中识字》。此书用于综合课。

 

    使用这套教材,初学者先学习《口语速成》和《常用汉字部首》,学完之后再学习《识字

课本》,就像吃西餐一样,一道菜一道菜来,循序渐进。这样,学习者不仅不会觉得汉语难

学,而且还会被汉字的文化内涵和艺术魅力所深深吸引。

 

 

To the User

This book introduces to foreign students the basics of how to write and learn the Chinese characters in the most efficient way.

Chinese characters developed from pictographs which were formed in a regular way with a certain number of components that are comparable to the 26 letters in the English alphabet. However, these components are different from the letters in the English alphabet in that 1) the components are much larger in number, about 300 in which over 100 are in common use; 2) the components are not arranged in a horizontal line but in the upper-lower, left-right, inside0outside and other forms; 3) the components are combined in a logical or meaningful way. Therefore, once one knows these basic components and the rules for arranging them, one can write almost all the Chinese characters. This is not only a time-saving approach, it is also an easy way to remember the form and meaning of a character.

The format of the lessons is as follows:

1. Starting from the most basic strokes

All the components are formed of strokes, and before one can learn the components, one has to be familiar with these strokes. The book introduces the eight basic types of strokes, with the variant forms, stroke names and rules for forming them.

2. Learning the characters through the radicals

Structurally Chinese characters can be classified into two kinds: one-component characters and compound characters. The first kind can be further categorized into pictograms and indicative characters, and the second kind, into associative characters and picot-phonograms. The compound characters are composed of one-component characters or components evolved from them, and the two kinds generally constitute the radicals. Therefore, radicals can be taken as the most basic components of Chinese characters. In addition, radicals also appear as meaningful components in the associative characters and picot-phonograms. Thus, teaching the characters through the radicals makes it easier to analyze the structure and meaning of the picot-phonograms and the associative characters. As almost all Chinese dictionaries use radical indexing systems for characters, it is essential to prepare the students for the use of dictionaries.

Introduced in this book are the 108 most commonly used radicals, sequenced from the simple to the more complicated according to the number of their strokes. Each radical is accompanied by its name, meaning, function, origin, way of writing and number of strokes.

3. Focusing on the combination of components

Under each radical there are several compound characters containing it. Each compound character is given its pronunciation and meaning. Emphasis is placed on the logical relationship between its components, its meaning and the structural type of its components.

 

 

编写体例

    本书是一本为外国人编写的学习书写汉字的基础教材。

    汉字是有一定结构规律的文字,它是以一定数量的构件按照一定的规则进行组合的,有其完整的系统性。也就是说,成千上万个汉字是由少量的构件有规律地组合而成的。英文的所有单词都是由26个字母组合而成的。汉字以构件组字和英文以字母组词不同:一、汉字的构件数量比英文字母要多,大约300多个,常用构件有100多个。二、汉字以构件组字不是线形排列,而是在一个方框内以上下、左右、内外等方式拼合而成。三、汉字构件的拼合具有逻辑性,也就是说,它与字义有着密切的关系。因此,学习汉字只要掌握了这少量的最基本的构件和汉字的组合规则,就可以书写几乎所有的汉字了。这样学习,不仅节省时间,而且也有利于对字义和字形的记忆。

    根据上述认识,本书的编写体例确定为从笔画入手,以部首为纲,以构件组合为核心。

 

    一、从笔画入手

    汉字的构件是由笔画构成的。因此学习汉字构件要从笔画入手。本书共介绍了8个基本笔画。对每个笔画还介绍了它的几种变形写法以及笔画的名称和笔顺规则。

    二、以部首为纲

    汉字在结构上分两大类,一类是独体字,一类是合体字。独体字又分象形字和指事字,合体字又分会意字和形声字。合体字是由独体字或由独体字演变来的偏旁构成的。汉字的部首一般是独体字或由独体字演变而来的偏旁,所以,部首本身可以说是汉字最基本的构件。另外,部首往往又是合体字中会意字的偏旁和形声字的形旁,所以,以部首为纲教汉字,便于对合体字中的会意字和形声字进行结构上分析和字义上的说明。汉语的工具书和词典多是以部首来检字。以部首为纲来编写此书的另一个目的是想为学习者将来使用汉语工具书打下一个坚实的基础。

    本书共介绍了108个最常用的部首,按照由易到难,即从笔画少到笔画多的顺序排列。对每个部首,本书介绍了它的名称、意义、作用、来源以及它的写法和笔画数等多项内容。

    三、以部件组合为核心

    在每个部首下介绍几个带有同一偏旁的合体字。对每个合体字不仅介绍了它的字音、字义,而且突出介绍了它和构件之间的逻辑关系以及构件组合的结构类型。

 

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